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CMST 385 Terms, Abbreviations and Acronyms Definitions
a. Archie is a program that allows you to search the files of all the Internet FTP servers that offer anonymous FTP. Archie is actually an indexing spider that visits each anonymous FTP site, reads all the directory and file names, and then indexes them in one large index. A user can then query Archie, which checks the query against its index. k. Java is a (high-level) computer programming language.
b. Bounced messages occur when the mail server does not deliver an email message to its intended recipient. Common causes for bounced messages include invalid email addresses and the e-mail user exceeding allotted e-mail storage space. l. Protocol is the methods or rules by which two computers agree to communicate
c. Browser is a program that allows you to view Web pages. m. TCP/IP (pronounced as separate letters) short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP.
d. Domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. For example, the domain name www.totalbaseball.com locates an Internet address for "totalbaseball.com" at Internet point 199.0.0.2 and a particular host server named "www". The "com" part of the domain name reflects the purpose of the organization or entity (in this example, "commercial") and is called the top-level domain name. The "totalbaseball" part of the domain name defines the organization or entity and together with the top-level is called the second-level domain name. The second-level domain name maps to and can be thought of as the "readable" version of the Internet address. A third level can be defined to identify a particular host server at the Internet address. In our example, "www" is the name of the server that handles Internet requests. (A second server might be called "www2".) A third level of domain name is not required. For example, the fully-qualified domain name could have been "totalbaseball.com" and the server assumed.
e. Emoticons are symbols made out of keyboard characters that are used to convey emotions. n. URL is the address of a file or resource available on the Internet.
f. FTP originally, FTP stood for File Transfer Protocol; a protocol which allows users on a computer to transfer files to another computer. Although, that definition is still valid, many now use the acronym FTP for File Transfer Program. This is due to the fact that there are a variety of programs on different computer platforms which use the File Transfer Protocol to transfer files back and forth.
g. Gopher is an Internet protocol that allows an Internet user to receive text files or lists from servers all over the world; these lists contain the location of files on the Internet. o. Usenet is a worldwide network of news discussion groups and uses the NNTP protocol.
h. HTML is the lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web or a special kind of text document that is used by Web browsers to present text and graphics. It is a non-proprietary format based upon SGML, and can be created and processed by a wide range of tools, from simple plain text editors - you type it in from scratch- to sophisticated WYSIWYG authoring tools. HTML uses tags such as h1 and /h1 to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, hypertext links etc.
i. HTTP or HyperText Transfer Protocol is the set of rules for exchanging text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files between a Web browser and Web server. The main purpose of HTTP is to transfer displayable Web pages and related files to your Web browser and other devices. When you click on the links, the file referenced is sent to your browser. p. Veronica is a program that allowed you to search the files of the Internet's Gopher servers for a particular search string. Like Archie, Veronica's equivalent program for FTP servers, Veronica is an indexing spider that visits the Gopher sites, reads all the directory and file names, and then indexes them in one large index. However, with the almost complete demise of Gopher servers (most content has probably been put on the Web); Veronica has become a relic of the early 1990s.
j. IP address is a number that identifies each sender or receiver of data that is sent in packets across the Internet.  

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